Roots absorb water and minerals form the soil and transport them to the stem. They also store food and propagate.

Root structure

Like stem the roots also have xylem, phloem and cambian. In addition they have a root cap which produces new cells continuously. The root cap helps to protect the roots as they bury through the soil to grow.

The root caps have root hairs which help to absorb moisture and minerals from the soil. These root hairs are called as small roots.

Types of root system

There are two types of root system. They are:

  •  Fibrous grass
  •  Lap root

Fibrous grass root systems have easy transplanting. The plants with fibrous root system are shorter, smaller and are more compact.
Lap root systems have longer roots but the roots are very small in number. Example for lap root system is carrot.

Functions of roots

  •  Absorb water and minerals from the soil
  •  Roots help in propagation